Intra Aortic Balloon Pump

I Made Adi Permana


Intra Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) is a mechanical cardiac-assist device that benefits patients with actual or potential life-threatening circulatory problem. Intra Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) reduces the resistance to left ventricular ejection and increases coronary and systemic blood flow.

The technique for IABP therapy involves insertion of an 8 or 9.5 Fr helium-filled balloon via the femoral artery into the descending aorta. The device is preferably inserted through an existing vascular access site in an attempt to reduce the rate of vascular and hemorrhagic complications.

The balloon is synchronized to deflate during early systole, thus decreasing le$ ventricular (LV) after load. In turn, LV ejection fraction (EF) and stroke volume (SV) are enhanced, leading to reduced myocardial oxygen consumption. The balloon inflates during early diastole, thus increasing coronary blood flow and peripheral perfusion.

The IABP is usually commenced at a rate of 1 : 1. Once the benefit of IABP therapy is thought to be concluded, patients are usually gradually weaned from the pump at rates of 1 : 2 to 1 : 3 over 6-12 h.

Key words : intra aortic balloon pump, coronary blood flow


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